Johann Carl  Friedrich Gauss (mathematician, astronomer, physicist)
Born: 30 April 1777 in Brunswick, Germany
Died: 23 February 1855 in Göttingen,  Germany
C.F.Gauss  is one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Gauss was born to a poor
family. His talents were recognized at an early age. He received scholarship which helped him devote himself to research at college and later life. He rediscovered many important results at college  and
in 1796 showed which regular polygons can be drawn by only ruler and compass. This was a centuries old open problem. His  Phd thesis was  about  fundamental therem of algebra. He gave  many proofs of  this  theoren during his life and clarified the notion  of complex numbers  (a+bi, where i is square root of -1 ) . Gauss made many important contributions to number theory. He formulated prime number theorem, which states that number of primes less than x is assimptotically ~x/logx. (error term is related to famous Riemann hypothesis which might have been recently proven)
He published Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801,  which  contained a his  proof of  quadratic reciprocity.  Quadratic reciprocity is a relation between Legendre symbols of two prime numbers.
In  1807 he became director of  observatory in Göttingen. In 1809 he pusblished an  important work on  astronomy. His work on possibility of noneuclidean geometry later led to discovery of
hyperbolic geometry by Bolyai, son of his friend.    He introduced gaussian gravitational constant, least squares method, normal (Gaussian ) distribution. In 1818 his work on geodesy led  to notion of curvature and he proved two surfaces are isometric if and only if  there is a map between them which preserves curvature. In his later life  (1831) he collaborated with W. Weber to do important work on electricity and magnetism.
 Gauss  was conservative in his views and usually worked  alone.  Most of his work  was not published  and were  rediscovered by others.  Although he didn't like teaching some of his students  also became  famous mathematicians. Gauss married twice and had seven children.   Detailed info.  by his granddd children. See also other mathematicans' biographies   What is Gaussian.

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